Developing methods for assessing the contribution of pollination to sustainable horticultural production Pollination services are a key example of ecosystem services that sustain agriculture and livelihoods. Pollinators are essential for orchard, horticultural and forage production, as well as the production of seeds for many root and fibre crops.
Standard techniques for estimating the costs and benefits to farmers of pollinator-friendly practices require the establishment of a baseline, against which the effects of changing practices can be assessed. IIED is examining participatory approaches to generating these baseline and comparison information The overall aim of the project is to enable smallholder farmers in Ghana and Nepal to evaluate the costs and benefits of introducing pro-pollinator practices. For reports and updates see the project website. Farmer and citizens assessments of transgenic crops GMOs and biosafety regulations The food sovereignty paradigm affirms the fundamental right of peoples to define their food and agricultural policies.
This implies that food providers and consumers are directly involved in policy making and institutional choices. New forms of citizenship need to be explored along with methodological innovations in deliberative and inclusive processes DIPs to enhance citizen voice and agency in decision-making today.
New insights and policy recommendations emerge by creating safe spaces for citizens who have experienced censorship and marginalisation by mainstream conservation practice. See the project page. IIED lobbies for policy and practice change in biodiversity and conservation through participation in key meetings, events and policy fora. Increasingly IIED is working with the media to bring issues of concern to wider public attention. More than biodiversity experts have already joined the network, including scientists, policymakers, non-governmental organisation staff and indigenous people from some the most biodiverse parts of our planet.
This new partnership between the IIED, Internews and the International Union for Conservation of Nature aims to boost the quantity and quality of media coverage on biodiversity around the world. Adams et al. Roe Biodiversity conservation and the eradication of poverty. Science , , — Campbell, A. Protecting the future: Carbon, forests, protected areas and local livelihoods. Reid, H. Earthscan, London. Roe, D. The origins and evolution of the conservation-poverty debate: a review of key literature, events and policy processes.
Oryx, 42 4 , Wildlife Conservation Society, New York. Oryx , 38, — Sachs J et al.
Science , The project descriptions above provide a brief insight into our current portfolio of activities. Details about earlier IIED biodiversity work can be found by browsing the website for anything tagged biodiversity. Most of our projects are written up as publications that can be downloaded via our publications database.
Skip to main content. Read more What happened at Nagoya? PCLG operates through a number of channels: a website www. A review of social assessment methodologies for protected areas and other land use and resource management interventions such as REDD has been published in the Natural Resource Issues series: Natural Resource Issues No.
Scherl and Vanessa Richardson published May For more information contact Dilys Roe Conservation and Human Rights Initiative Over the last couple of years IIED, with consultant Nick Winer, have been working with the major international conservation organisations to develop a set of common human rights principles and an accountability mechanism to demonstrate adherence to these. Valuing biodiversity and financing conservation Harnessing carbon finance to arrest deforestation: Saving the Javan rhinoceros Funded by The Darwin Initiative , IIED works with local institutions to establish functioning and equitable forest carbon facilities that encourage the conservation of large mammals, particularly the critically endangered Javan rhinoceros.
For more information contact Maryanne Grieg Gran Paying local communities for ecosystem services: The Chimpanzee Conservation Corridor Chimpanzees in Uganda are under threat as their habitat is lost to agriculture and human settlements. For more information contact Maryanne Grieg-Gran Sustainable tourism in the Srepok Wilderness, Cambodia A serious decline in species populations in the last few decades due to unsustainable harvesting and habitat loss has prompted urgent action from the Government, WWF, and other local partners to address this trend.
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Read Further information, reports and presentations may be found on the project page. For more information contact Muyeye Chambwera Biodiversity Offsets Finding new sources of finance for biodiversity conservation and developing strategies that conserve endangered species and habitats while enhancing livelihoods for those people living closest to biodiversity is a major challenge. Local organisations and institutions Traditional Knowledge and Biocultural Heritage IIED works with indigenous and local communities to protect their rights over biocultural heritage - that is, interlinked knowledge, biodiversity, landscapes, cultural and spiritual values and customary laws, that are held collectively and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Key findings from phase 1 are available to download and the issues are summarised in the Briefing Protecting traditional knowledge from the grassroots up The project is funded by The Christensen Fund, and the International Development Research Centre IDRC. Presented at COP 15, this review provided an indication of how much these countries recognise and prioritise the role that biodiversity, ecosystems and natural habitats play in helping people adapt to climate change Does EbA Work?
Conservation Land Management. Go to Conservation Land Management. Click to have a closer look. Select version. About this book Contents Customer reviews Biography Related titles. Images Additional images. About this book From the publishers announcement: Our agricultural and food systems are not meeting everyone's needs, and despite great progress in increasing productivity over the past century, hundreds of millions of people remain hungry and malnourished. Edited By: Jules N Pretty. Media reviews. This is a fascinating read.
Essential reading for students and anyone who wants to promote sustainable development' Leisa Magazine '[T]he book is a mine of information' Livestock Science.
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Current promotions. Food Plants of the World. More Info. Ploughing a New Furrow. Collins Food for Free. Pesticide Application Methods. It also helps identify ways in which sustainable tourism can be introduced to students. Bulbeck, C. Ghimire, K. Graci, S. Hall, D. Johnston, A. Tourism and Indigenous Peoples , Earthscan, London. Mastny, L. Mitchell, J. Pathways to Prosperity , Earthscan, London. Mowforth, M. Pattullo, P. Robinson, M. Sharpley, R.
Spenceley, A. Wheat, S. Exploring Ecotourism Online Resource Guide. Begin by opening your learning journal for this activity. For example, there were around By , this figure had risen to million, 17 times the earlier figure. By , it had risen by more than half again to million and in it was million — the number of international tourists has more than doubled in less than 20 years. The World Tourism Organisation forecasts that this figure could rise to 1. For small islands and developing countries, or specific regional and local destinations where tourism is a key economic sector, the importance of tourism tends to be even higher.
Thus, tourism is a major source of income and employment for many countries, particularly in the South where it can assist in addressing problems caused by poverty. However, the benefits of holidays for tourists are not always shared by the communities they visit. Source: Quoted in Butler, R. However, not all tourists cause such problems. Therefore, it is important to recognise different categories of tourists. Identify the characteristics of these four categories of tourists.
Q1: Name i one place in your country, and ii one in another country which each of these four categories of tourists might visit. Q2: Which category has the least harmful impact on the cultures and environments they visit? However, this group represents the smallest segment of the tourism market and tends to spend little money in the places they visit. The majority of tourists fall into the mass tourism category, the one most often seen as the cause of tourism-related problems.
For tourism to contribute to sustainable human development, all tourists need to consider ways of reducing the negative impacts of their holidays. It was established as a UN affiliate in with responsibilities for:. In the four decades since , the WTO charter has expanded to include social and environmental responsibilities. A sustainable approach to tourism means that neither the natural environment nor the socio-cultural fabric of the host communities will be impaired by the arrival of tourists.
On the contrary, the natural environment and the local communities should benefit from tourism, both economically and culturally. Sustainability implies that tourism resources and attractions should be utilised in such a way that their subsequent use by future generations is not compromised.
Find out more about the World Tourism Organisation. Like all forms of development, tourism can have both positive and negative impacts. The aim of sustainable tourism is to maximise benefits such as job creation, foreign exchange earnings and new infrastructure while safeguarding cultural heritage and living culture and minimising negative environmental and social impacts, especially of mass tourism.
Identify the benefits and problems of mass tourism. We can learn a lot about mass tourism by looking at how destinations are marketed. While the actual places and the mental images are related, the image is not a simple reflection of the physical reality. Tourism operators construct images based, in part, on the physical appearance of the destination, but they also tailor the image to what they think consumers want.
On many occasions, this desired image becomes the model for the construction of the physical facilities, and the kinds of services and activities provided. Thus, in a sense, the images also help to construct the reality. Its attractions include the natural beauty of rainforests, islands and beaches as well as the cultural heritage and way of life of the Thai people.
Visit the Tourism Authority of Thailand for additional information on these and other images of Thailand. Analyse these six tourism images of Thailand to identify the nature and effects of tourism images:. Increasing awareness of the problems of mass tourism is leading many holidaymakers to seek more responsible and sustainable forms of tourism.
One of the most common forms of sustainable tourism is ecotourism, the term most commonly used to describe any form of holiday or recreation in natural surroundings. The Ecotourism Society also adds the concept of social responsibility in its definition of ecotourism as:. Source: The International Ecotourism Society. Thus, ecotourism is a form of tourism to relatively undisturbed natural areas for the main purposes of admiring them and learning more about their habitats.
Ecotourism also seeks to reduce its impacts on the area visited. It also contributes to the conservation of natural areas and the sustainable development of adjacent areas and communities, generating further awareness among resident and nearby populations and visitors. Although a relatively new part of the tourism industry, ecotourism has spread rapidly throughout the world.
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The most popular ecotourism destinations are spread relatively evenly throughout the world and include sites in Central and South America, Canada and the USA, Antarctica and Australia. Another important ecotourism destination is Africa. Source: Green Money: EcoTravel. One of the major attractions in ecotourism is the rainforest. The benefits and problems of ecotourism can be analysed through case studies of rainforest ecotourism in Rwanda and Brazil.
Drawing on research by the Rainforest Action Network , these case studies invite you to explore answers to three questions: [Answers to these three questions may be recorded in your learning journal. Unfortunately, too often the money generated does not benefit these people. All to often it goes to the North, where the tourists originated, giving little economic protection to the forests. Profits leak back to the North through tour companies, plane tickets, foreign-owned accommodation and use of non-local supplies. The percentage is often lower in the South.
A study of the Annapurna region of Nepal, a popular ecotourism destination, found that only 10 cents of every dollar spent stayed in the local economy — and that much of that small amount ended up in the large cities or in the hands of the wealthy elite. Tourist dollars should help to improve management of conservation areas on which the tourism is based. However, the money from tourism often does not end up with the agencies that manage these areas. In Costa Rica, for example, the park service does not earn enough money from its entrance fees to manage and protect its numerous parks.
The other three quarters must come from donations.
Tourists often resent paying large sums of money on entrance fees. Although these fees are only a small portion of the money spent on a trip they can be the most important dollars spent in protecting the resource because they go directly toward protecting the site. Tourism is largely responsible for saving the gorillas of Rwanda from extinction. Even this success is in danger from civil war that encroaches and endangers both the forest and tourist industry.