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Systems Thinking, : Managing Chaos and Complexity: A Platform for Designing Business Architecture
Contents:


  1. Comprehensive Handbook Of Social Work And Social Welfare The Profession Of Social Work 2008
  2. Social Work Profession - Social Work - Oxford Bibliographies
  3. Reference Sources
  4. Subject Guide

System stabilising efforts included buying and using personal resources, such as stationery and computers, in an attempt to meet the demands, respond to service users' needs, and to protect the department from negative reactions from the public. Six reported that they reverted to buying paper in order to print reports.

Four reported that they took their own money to buy snacks for youths who came for training sessions. Some used their own vehicles to conduct awareness campaigns and make home visits in emergency instances. One participant, laughing with an expression of shame, said: "You know sometimes I steal cars allocated to other colleagues knowing very well that they also need it. But with the pressure to meet targets, I become selfish and deprive other people the opportunity to fulfil their jobs.

I steal not because I want to but because there is a hard push for production and meeting of targets When they ask for outputs, you cannot start your sentence with 'I had no car'". The negative effect is that it "causes a lot of conflict between us but I am compelled to do it I can't help it. Sometimes the dissatisfaction was manifested in openly expressed resistance among a few social workers, who confidently and firmly opposed the authoritarianism of the management in meetings. Although the majority of social workers succumbed and used the silent approach, when they had lunch or tea together the silent ones would applaud and encourage the outspoken ones to continue opposing the bureaucracy and authoritarianism in the organisation.

Critical theory postulates that "social structures are oppressive and they are maintained through political and economic power and supported by a range of legitimising structures" Humphries, The research process demonstrated the power of critical theory in action. Through engagement in reflexive dialogue, social workers began to appreciate that they were not merely passive victims of the system.


  1. References.
  2. Social work;
  3. Reference Sources - Social Work - Guides at Milner Library, Illinois State University;
  4. Kundrecensioner!
  5. Light Scattering in Solids V: Superlattices and Other Microstructures;
  6. Violin Sonata No. 4, Movement 3 - Piano Score.

They began to see themselves as people who could be assertive and challenge some of the conditions that impacted on their functioning. Babbie and Mouton assert that a distinctive feature of critical theory is that science must not only be used "to explain and understand society, but to change it for the better", a view supported by Miller and Brewer , who contend that the central feature of critical theory is that "research is a political activity, working either for or against the status quo".

Freire , and Sewpaul b state that raising critical consciousness could provide the platform for emancipation and transformative action, which was to a certain extent achieved through this research process. The in-depth interviews and the focus group discussion served as a catalyst for resistance amongst those who were involved in the process. Rather than simply accept instructions, social workers began to show a willingness to ask questions, seek clarification from management, and they made decision not to engage in system-stabilising efforts.

Comprehensive Handbook Of Social Work And Social Welfare The Profession Of Social Work 2008

One of their acts of resistance included drafting a petition, signing and faxing it to the head office and their union. They detailed their dissatisfaction about the working conditions and the treatment from their superiors. Although this caused tension amongst workers and management, it settled after a while, as management did begin to listen to the social workers. Through their engagement in the research process, the majority of social workers began to develop a sense of solidarity amongst themselves and made decisions to take collective action.

There appeared to be more trust between them and the fear of betrayal decreased. In one instance the MEC had promised to provide some service users with food and school uniforms. Social workers profiled those families and found that they were indeed needy. The MEC was supposed to hand over the items to the families, which did not happen. Instead she sent an instruction, which was bound to cause conflict between the social workers and the service users. In a common show of solidarity the social workers refused to follow the instruction of the MEC. They informed management that they were not going to work that day until the promise made to the service users was fulfilled.

This was relayed to the MEC, who then gave management the go-ahead to provide the supply. In addition, social workers persistently requested phone codes to be in touch with service users; these were eventually granted, one year after the initial request. Citing Smith, Hendrickson concluded that, "it is often through small, everyday acts of resistance that social workers find opportunities for social justice work in mainstream practice settings".

Small, everyday acts hold enormous symbolic value and potential to destabilise systems. The results of this study confirm that social workers are confronting "the harsh realities of commodity production: speed-up, routinisation of work, greater work discipline and Neoliberalism and managerialism have increased surveillance and control Noble, , and replaced collegiality and trust with contracts, competitiveness, individuality and performance indicators, supporting a compliant and technically skilled workforce Roberts, rather than critically reflexive professionals.

If academics, who might have more privilege and agency than their practice counterparts, capitulate to the hegemonic discourses of neoliberalism and managerialism or lack awareness of their impacts, it is less likely that graduates would, on beginning practice, challenge pernicious features of the status quo. While social work is a calling or ideally ought to be , it is also a profession and an academic discipline requiring several years of academic study. Social workers deserve decent work conditions, respect, trust and autonomy to facilitate fulfilment of their professional responsibilities.

The results of this study indicate that the lack of resources, top-down hierarchical management, political interference, cost containment and the privileging of targets and numbers above people-centred development contribute to conflicts among colleagues, subterfuge, demoralisation, hopelessness and the desire to opt out of the profession. However, as this research has shown, even in a government-driven organisation, managed by neoliberal and managerialist agendas, social workers are not without agency.

While social workers are oppressed, it must be understood that their service users are often far more disadvantaged and oppressed than they are. It is the ethical responsibility of the social worker to challenge structural conditions in the workplace for their own wellbeing and satisfaction. Although these are given attention on an international level Dominelli, , they have largely eluded South African social work, perhaps on account of the severity and intensity of psychosocial problems confronting South African society, the urgency with which cases have to be dealt with, the high workloads and poor resources, and the lack of attention to this in the social work curricula.

Leonard calls for a practice which "enables subjects to express individual resistance to domination and the possibility of participating in collective resistance in the pursuit of claims for welfare". As there is a nexus between education and practice, this calls for emancipatory education so that graduates can become engaged citizens who challenge oppression and injustices Sewpaul, c. Emancipatory education can and should serve as the bedrock of preparation for legitimate resistance to injustice. Creating space for resistance and solidarity is also important.

The reflexive dialogue that occurred through the in-depth interviews and the focus group prompted social workers to coalesce around some common agendas in this study. However, for such initiatives to be sustained, reflexive dialogue and critical engagement need to occur on a consistent basis within organisations, and across the spectrum of social service agencies, without fear of reprisal.

Challenges related to working conditions experienced by social workers practicing in rural areas. Reflexive methodology. New vistas for qualitative research. London: Sage Publications. Postmodern ethics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Effective supervision in social work and social care. Bristol: Social Care Institute for Excellence. Profit over people - neoliberalism and global order. New York: Seven Stories Press. Subordinating the social?

Social Work Profession - Social Work - Oxford Bibliographies

Neoliberalism and the remaking of welfare capitalism. Cultural Studies, 21 6 Research at grassroots: for the social services and human service professions. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers. The Sage handbook of qualitative research. New York: Sage Publications. Pretoria: DHET. Framework for Social Welfare Services.

Pretoria: DSD. White Paper for Social Welfare. Government Gazette Notice of Pretoria: Ministry for Welfare and Population Development. Deprofessionalising social work: anti-oppressive practice, competencies and postmodernism. British Journal of Social Work, Anti-oppressive social work theory and practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Green social work: from environmental crises to environmental justice.

Cambridge: Polity Press. Globalization and global justice. International Social Work, 49 3 The pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. Education for critical consciousness. New York: Seabury Press. Positivism, postmodernism, or critical theory? A case study of communications students' understandings of criticism, Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 6 2 Neoliberalism, corporate culture, and the promise of higher education: the university as a democratic public sphere. Harvard Educational Review, 72 4 Gramsci's prison letters Translated by Henderson, H.

Reference Sources

Edinburgh: Zwan Publications. Legitimizing resistance to organizational change: a social work social justice perspective. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2 5 Finding your way in qualitative research. Ethics as a cite of resistance: the tension between social control and critical reflection. Social work: making a world of difference. Berne: IFSW. HOWE, D.

Surface and depth in social work practice. Social theory, social work and social change: the state of welfare. Amy Chanmugam. Substance Abuse. Lori K. Holleran Steiker. Samuel A. The Mental Health Field of Practice. King Davis. Elizabeth DePoy. Stephen Gilson. Gerontology: A Field of Practice. Roberta R. Namkee Choi.

Katherine van Wormer. Albert Roberts. David W. Patricia Brownell. International Social Work. Doreen Elliott. Uma A. Jon Matsuoka. Hamilton I.

The Social Work Profession’s Contributions to Administration of Social Services

Iris Carlton-LaNey. Social and Economic Justice. Tricia B. Putting Evidence-Based Practice into Practice. James G. Allen Rubin. Issues in Social Work.

Subject Guide

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